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Drugs. 2003;63(10):1021-51.

Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B): a review of its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against hepatitis B.

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1
Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. demail@adis.co.nz

Abstract

Engerix-B (Hep-B[Eng]) is a noninfectious recombinant DNA vaccine containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). It is produced from genetically engineered yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Intramuscular Hep-B(Eng) [0-, 1-, 6-month schedule] has excellent immunogenicity in healthy neonates and infants, children, adolescents and adults, with seroprotection rates of 85-100% seen approximate, equals 1 month after the final dose of vaccine; seroprotection was defined as an antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) titre of > or =10 IU/L. The use of alternative Hep-B(Eng) immunisation schedules (e.g. a 0-, 1-, 2-, 12-month schedule in neonates and infants, 0-, 12-, 24-month or two-dose schedules in children and adolescents, and accelerated schedules in adults) have also been associated with high rates of seroprotection. Seroprotection rates were generally similar with Hep-B(Eng) and the recombinant vaccine Recombivax HB (Hep-B[Rax]) or plasma-derived vaccines (PDVs) approximate, equals 1 month after the final dose (although anti-HBs geometric mean titres were significantly higher with Hep-B[Eng] than with Hep-B[Rax]). One month after the final dose, adults had significantly higher seroprotection rates with the recombinant triple-antigen vaccine Bio-Hep-B (Hep-B[Bio]) than with Hep-B(Eng), although seroprotection rates in healthy infants were similar with Hep-B(Eng) and Hep-B(Bio). Hep-B(Eng) had excellent immunogenicity in several groups considered at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B (e.g. neonates born to hepatitis B carrier mothers and healthcare workers). The immunogenicity of Hep-B(Eng) was reduced in patients with conditions associated with impaired immune function (e.g. patients undergoing haemodialysis or being treated for malignancy), although it had good immunogenicity in patients with diabetes mellitus.Hep-B(Eng) had excellent protective efficacy against HBsAg carriage in healthy infants and children, and in neonates born to hepatitis B carrier mothers (protective efficacy of 95-99%). Hep-B(Eng) also demonstrated good protective efficacy in a number of other high-risk groups. Hep-B(Eng) is generally well tolerated with a tolerability profile similar to that of Hep-B(Rax), Hep-B(Bio) and PDVs. In conclusion, Hep-B(Eng) is a well established, highly immunogenic hepatitis B vaccine with good tolerability and excellent protective efficacy; it offers flexibility through a variety of immunisation schedules. In addition, it appears that Hep-B(Eng) confers immunity for at least 10 years. Hep-B(Eng) has an important role in mass vaccination campaigns against hepatitis B, as well as in groups considered at high risk of acquiring hepatitis B.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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