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J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Apr 23;125(16):4779-84.

Investigations of bivalent antibody binding on fluid-supported phospholipid membranes: the effect of hapten density.

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Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3012, USA.


Investigations of ligand-receptor binding between bivalent antibodies and membrane-bound ligands are presented. The purpose of these studies was to explore binding as a function of hapten density in a two-dimensionally fluid environment. A novel microfluidic strategy in conjunction with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was designed to achieve this. The method allowed binding curves to be acquired with excellent signal-to-noise ratios while using only minute quantities of protein solution. The specific system investigated was the interaction between anti-DNP antibodies and phospholipid membranes containing DNP-conjugated lipids. Binding curves for ligand densities ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 mol % were obtained. Two individual dissociation constants could be extracted from the data corresponding to the two sequential binding events. The first dissociation constant, K(D1), was 2.46 x 10(-)(5) M, while the second was K(D2) = 1.37 x 10(-)(8) mol/m(2). This corresponded to a positively cooperative binding effect with an entropic difference between the two events of 62.3 +/- 2.7 J/(mol.K). Furthermore, the percentage of monovalently and bivalently bound protein was determined at each ligand density.

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