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Hypertension. 2003 May;41(5):1027-34. Epub 2003 Apr 14.

Associations between hypertension and genes in the renin-angiotensin system.

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Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Ill, USA.


The genes of the renin-angiotensin system have been subjected to intense molecular scrutiny in cardiovascular disease studies, but their contribution to risk is still uncertain. In this study, we sampled 192 African American and 153 European American families (602 and 608 individuals, respectively) to evaluate the contribution of variations in genes that encode renin-angiotensin system components of susceptibility to hypertension. We genotyped 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system genes ACE, AGT, AGTR1, and REN. The family-based transmission/disequilibrium test was performed with each single-nucleotide polymorphism and with the multilocus haplotypes. Two individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with hypertension among African Americans, and this result persisted when both groups were combined. The associations were confirmed in haplotype analysis for REN, AGTR1, and ACE in African Americans. Consistent but less significant evidence was found in European Americans. We also randomly sampled unrelated individuals across families to obtain 84 cases and 108 controls among the African Americans and 41 cases and 113 controls in the European Americans. Single-nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analyses again showed consistent, albeit weaker, results. Thus, in this biracial population sample, we find evidence that interindividual variation in the renin-angiotensin system genes contributes to hypertension risk.

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