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Kidney Int Suppl. 2003 May;(84):S50-3.

Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure: impact on cardiovascular disease.

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Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.


Despite significant progress in renal replacement therapy, the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is many times higher than in the general population. The traditional risk factors are frequently present in CRF patients. However, based upon conventional risk factor analysis, these factors do not fully explain the extraordinary increase in morbidity and mortality in CVD among patients with CRF. Accumulating evidence suggests that CRF is associated with impaired endothelial cell function. In recent years, the role of endothelial dysfunction (ED) and excessive oxidative stress (OS) in the development of CVD has been highlighted. ED is an early feature of vascular disease in different diseases such diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary heart disease. The precise mechanism which induces ED is not clear. Several factors however, including OS-related accumulation of uremic toxins, hypertension and shear stress, dyslipidemia with cytotoxic lipoprotein species such as small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, competitive inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) by increased production by asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are pathogenic. In addition, it is known that excessive OS causes ED. An overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may injure the endothelial cell membrane, inactivate NO, and cause oxidation of an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Recent studies have demonstrated that an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and OS are closely related to each other in patients with CRF.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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