Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Apr 15;138(8):651-8.

Update on Parkinson disease.

Author information

Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center, University of Pennsylvania, 330 South 9th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.


This Update reviews developments in the pathophysiology and treatment of Parkinson disease during the past several years. In the area of pathophysiology, studies have addressed the contribution of environmental factors such as caffeine and pesticides. Large-scale epidemiologic studies have also expanded the role genetic factors are thought to play. Detailed studies of kindreds with familial Parkinson disease due to alpha-synuclein and parkin have catalyzed basic science investigations into the pathologic mechanisms of the disease. These studies have led to the development of a pathophysiologic model of Parkinson disease that emphasizes abnormal protein aggregation. Studies of treatment have clarified the relative roles of l-dopa and dopamine agonists in early Parkinson disease and shown the potential for surgical interventions, particularly deep-brain stimulation, to relieve the symptoms of advanced, medically refractory disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center