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Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Apr;31(8):695-700.

Low mortality rates related to respiratory virus infections after bone marrow transplantation.

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Virology Laboratory (LIM 52-HCFMUSP) of Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, Brazil.


Respiratory viruses (RVs) frequently cause severe respiratory disease in bone marrrow transplant (BMT) recipients. To evaluate the frequency of RV, nasal washes were collected year-round from BMT recipients with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Direct immunofluorescence assay was performed for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza (Flu) A and B, adenovirus and parainfluenza (Paraflu) virus. Patients with RSV pneumonia or with upper RSV infection, but considered at high risk for developing RSV pneumonia received aerosolized ribavirin. Oseltamivir was given to patients with influenza. A total of 179 patients had 392 episodes of URI. In all, 68 (38%) tested positive: RSV was detected in 18 patients (26.4%), Flu B in 17 (25%), Flu A in 11 (16.2%) and Paraflu in 7 (10.3%). A total of 14 patients (20.6%) had multiple RV infections or coinfection. RSV pneumonia developed in 55.5% of the patients with RSV-URI. One of the 15 patients (6.6%) with RSV pneumonia died. Influenza pneumonia was diagnosed in three patients (7.3%). RSV and influenza infections peaked in fall-winter and winter-spring months, respectively. We observed decreased rates of influenza and parainfluenza pneumonia and low mortality because of RSV pneumonia. The role of antiviral interventions such as aerosolized ribavirin and new neuraminidase inhibitors remains to be defined in randomized trials.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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