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Int J Neurosci. 2003 Jan;113(1):49-71.

Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample.

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Antioquia Neurosciences Group, University of Antioquia Medellin, Colombia.


The aim of this article was to analyze the prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Colombian "Paisa" children and adolescents. A randomized sample of 4- to 17-year-old children and adolescents--176 males and 154 females--was selected from schools in Manizales, Colombia. The diagnosis of ADHD was obtained using a semistructured psychiatric and neurological interview, medical histories revision, and neurological or psychiatric evaluations. Several rating scales and a neuropsychological assessment were administered in order to confirm the diagnosis. Children with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) between 71 and 84 were recorded as having Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF), and those with a history of mild motor retardation, and/or Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) lower than 71, were recorded as having a Developmental Coordination disorder (DCD), after confirmation by neurological and neuropsychological examinations. BIF and DCD children were excluded from the ADHD group. Total prevalence of ADHD adjusted by sex was 16.4% (males 19.8% and females 12.3%). Prevalence of clean ADHD cases was 11.5%, distributed as follows: combined type, 6.4%; inattentive, 4.8%; and hyperactive-impulsive, 0.3%. Distribution by sex was as follows: males, 14.8%; and females, 7.7%; with an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1-4.5, chi 2 = 4.0, p < .05). Clean prevalence of ADHD adjusted by equal sex distribution was 11.3%. Prevalence of BIF was 5.8%, DCD 3.0%, and mild mental retardation 3.9%. Prevalence of ADHD did not show differences by socioeconomic status (SES), in contrast to mild mental retardation in which BIF and DCD were significantly more frequent in the lower SES.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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