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Bone. 2003 Apr;32(4):341-9.

Involvement of vacuolar H+ -ATPase in incorporation of risedronate into osteoclasts.

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Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.


Although osteoclasts incorporate bisphosphonates during bone resorption, the mechanism of this incorporation by osteoclasts is not known. We previously reported that bisphosphonates disrupt the actin rings (clear zones) formed in normal osteoclasts, but did not disrupt actin rings in osteoclasts derived from osteosclerotic oc/oc mice, which have a defect in the gene encoding vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). The present study showed that V-ATPase is directly involved in the incorporation of risedronate, a nitrogen containing bisphosphonate, into osteoclasts. Treatment of osteoclasts with risedronate disrupted actin rings and inhibited pit formation by osteoclasts on dentine slices. Bafilomycin A(1), a V-ATPase inhibitor, inhibited the pit-forming activity of osteoclasts but did not disrupt actin rings. Risedronate failed to disrupt actin rings in the presence of bafilomycin A(1). E-64, a lysosomal cysteine proteinase inhibitor, showed no inhibitory effect on the demineralization of dentine by osteoclasts but inhibited the digestion of dentine matrix proteins without disrupting actin rings. Risedronate disrupted actin rings even in the presence of E-64. Treatment of osteoclasts placed on plastic plates with risedronate also disrupted actin rings. Bafilomycin A(1) but not E64 prevented the disruption of actin rings in osteoclasts treated with risedronate on plastic plates. Inhibition of V-ATPase with bafilomycin A(1) also prevented disruption of actin rings by etidronate, a non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate. These results suggest that V-ATPase induced acidification beneath the ruffled borders of osteoclasts and subsequent bone demineralization triggers the incorporation of both nitrogen-containing and non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates into osteoclasts.

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