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Leuk Lymphoma. 2003 Mar;44(3):391-409.

Purine nucleoside analogues in the treatment of myleoid leukemias.

Author information

1
Department of Hematology, Medical University of Lodz, 93-513 Lodz, Pabianicka 62 Poland. robaktad@csk.am.lodz.pl

Abstract

The purine nucleoside analogues (PNA), fludarabine (FA), cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CdA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF), represent a novel group of cytotoxic agents with high activity in low-grade lymphoid malignancies. However, several investigations have revealed that these agents are active also in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Synergistic interaction between FA or 2-CdA with cytarabine (Ara-C) have been demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. PNA enhance the cell concentration of Ara-CTP, which is active metabolite of Ara-C. It is likely that the addition of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may further improve the effects of FA (FLAG) or 2-CdA (CLAG). The addition of anthracyclines to induction therapy does not appear to result in a substantial advantage in terms of CR achievement and duration. An alternative approach to increase FLAG activity might be the addition of investigational drugs with novel mechanism of action, such as topoiromerase I inhibitors. The addition of anthracyclines to induction therapy does not appear to result in a substantial advantage in terms of CR achievement and duration. Clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy of PNA alone or in combination protocols in the treatment of AML. These regimens seem to produce superior results with acceptable toxicities in previously treated and relapsed, poor risk AML. However, early relapses remain a significant problem in a majority of refractory or relapsed patients in CR after treatment with PNA based regimens. To prolong remission duration or even cure AML, auto--or allo stem cell transplantation should be considered. However, FAMP or 2-CdA containing regimens may impair mobilization and collection of stem cells from peripheral blood for autotransplantation. Few studies have analyzed the role of PNA in CML. 2-CdA, FAMP and DCF can induce hematologic response in chronic phase of CML but cytogenetic responses have not been observed. Preliminary results suggest, that PNA used alone or in combination may be used as palliation in blast phase of the disease. However, currently, the role of these agents in CML is insignificant because of the high activity of Glivec in this disease. Finally, PNA, especially FA play an important role in non-myeloablative conditioning regimens for allogenic stem cell transplantation in high-risk patients, possibly also with myeloid malignancies.

PMID:
12688309
DOI:
10.1080/1042819021000035608
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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