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Prim Care. 2002 Dec;29(4):787-814.

Immunizations for international travel.

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Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-4696, USA.


Many infections encountered by international travelers can be prevented by adherence to personal protective measures and appropriate vaccinations. This review outlined the incidence and importance of the major vaccine-preventable infectious diseases encountered by U.S. travelers, as well as the indications, contraindications, and side effects of available vaccines. Official proof of yellow fever vaccine often is required for entry into some countries. Based on endemic or epidemic infections at destinations, planned activities, and age and medical history of international travelers, other vaccines may be recommended. Many clinicians will be familiar with some of the infections and vaccines that may be used in travelers; other vaccines may be encountered infrequently and associated with significant risk of adverse effects. Since vaccines do not provide complete protection and some travel-related infections do not have vaccines available yet (e.g., malaria and dengue fever), physicians need to be vigilant concerning febrile illness in returning travelers.

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