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Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 Apr 15;34(8):1078-88.

S-nitrosation of glutathione by nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and (*)NO/O(2)(*-).

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Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz, Austria.


To elucidate potential mechanisms of S-nitrosothiol formation in vivo, we studied nitrosation of GSH and albumin by nitric oxide ((*)NO), peroxynitrite, and (*)NO/O(2)(*)(-). In the presence of O(2), (*)NO yielded 20% of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at pH 7.5. Ascorbate and the spin trap 4-hydroxy-[2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl] (TEMPOL) inhibited GSNO formation by 67%. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) demonstrated intermediate formation of glutathionyl radicals, suggesting that GSNO formation by (*)NO/O(2) is predominantly mediated by (*)NO(2). Peroxynitrite-triggered GSNO formation (0.06% yield) was stimulated 10- and 2-fold by ascorbate and TEMPOL, respectively. Co-generation of (*)NO and O(2)(*)(-) at equal fluxes yielded less GSNO than (*)NO alone, but was 100-fold more efficient (8% yield) than peroxynitrite. Moreover, in contrast to the reaction of peroxynitrite, GSNO formation by (*)NO/O(2)(*)(-) was inhibited by ascorbate. Similar results were obtained with albumin instead of GSH. We propose that sulfhydryl compounds react with O(2)(*)(-) to initiate a chain reaction that forms radical intermediates which combine with (*)NO to yield GSNO. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, S-nitrosothiol formation by (*)NO/O(2) and (*)NO/O(2)(*)(-) occurred with relative efficiencies comparable to those in solution. Our results indicate that concerted generation of (*)NO and O(2)(*)(-) may essentially contribute to nitrosative stress in inflammatory diseases.

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