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Appl Opt. 2003 Apr 1;42(10):1805-8.

Stabilization improvements of laser-diode closed-loop heterodyne phase-shifting interferometer for surface profile measurement.

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Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515, Japan.


To stabilize the phase-shifting Fizeau-type interferometer against environmental disturbances (namely, vibration and temperature variations), the feedback scheme that uses the current-induced frequency modulation of a laser diode (lambda = 633 nm) and the two-frequency optical heterodyne method has been investigated, with particular attention to improvement of the achievable stabilization. It is demonstrated that introduction of the proportional-integral control into the feedback system improves stabilization against the proportional control case; e.g., stabilization is improved 5 times for 100-nm(p-p) vibration at the frequency range at 30 Hz. The surface profile measurement for a sample mirror was conducted with a reproducibility of 6.8 nm in the root mean square under the subwavelength-amplitude vibration at 100 Hz.

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