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J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Apr;41(4):1469-79.

DNA fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium with emphasis on phage type DT104 based on variable number of tandem repeat loci.

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  • 1Division for Infectious Diseases Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway.


Seventy-eight human and environmental strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, as well as 18 isolates of other Salmonella serovars and 6 isolates of Escherichia coli, were subjected to a novel variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)-based fingerprinting method that showed high discrimination and reproducibility for typing serovar Typhimurium isolates. The method is based on capillary separation of PCR products from fluorescence-labeled VNTR in the serovar Typhimurium genome. The serovar Typhimurium isolates displayed 54 VNTR patterns, and the VNTR assay correctly identified strains from a well-characterized outbreak. Among 37 serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 isolates, 28 distinct VNTR patterns were found. This VNTR-based method is fast and suitable for complete automation. Our VNTR-based method was capable of high discrimination within the homogeneous serovar Typhimurium DT104 phage type and can be used to trace outbreaks and to monitor DT104 as well as other phage types. The VNTR assay was compared to XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, integron-cassette profiles and gene PCR of intI1, qacEDelta1, sulI1, and floR. The VNTR assay showed greatly improved resolution compared to all other tested methods in this study.

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