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EMBO J. 2003 Apr 15;22(8):1846-56.

Chromatin remodeling protein Chd1 interacts with transcription elongation factors and localizes to transcribed genes.

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  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.


Transcription in eukaryotes is influenced by the chromatin state of the template, and chromatin remodeling factors have well-documented roles in regulating transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (pol) II. Chromatin also influences transcription elongation; however, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors in this process. Here, we present evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin remodeling factor Chd1 functions during transcription elongation. First, we identified Chd1 in a two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with Rtf1, a member of the Paf1 complex that associates with RNA pol II and regulates transcription elongation. Secondly, we show through co-immunoprecipitation studies that Chd1 also interacts with components of two essential elongation factors, Spt4-Spt5 and Spt16-Pob3. Thirdly, we demonstrate that deletion of CHD1 suppresses a cold-sensitive spt5 mutation that is also suppressed by defects in the Paf1 complex and RNA pol II. Finally, we demonstrate that Chd1, Rtf1 and Spt5 associate with actively transcribed regions of chromatin. Collectively, these findings suggest an important role for Chd1 and chromatin remodeling in the control of transcription elongation.

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