Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Lancet Oncol. 2003 Apr;4(4):233-41.

Surgery, brachytherapy, and external-beam radiotherapy for early prostate cancer.

Author information

Section of Urology, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


Patients diagnosed with early prostate cancer after 2000 can expect better outcomes from treatment than patients who were diagnosed in the 1980s and early 1990s. These improved outcomes are the result of stage migration, new technologies such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated external-beam radiotherapy (IMRT), better implant techniques, and optimum use of hormone therapy. We review the outcomes for radical prostatectomy, permanent seed implant, 3DCRT, and IMRT. For patients with clinical stage T1c or T2 disease and a Gleason score of less than 8, 5-year biochemical disease-free survival is remarkably similar for all the above treatments. Furthermore, complication rates are acceptable for all these modalities. For patients with bulky T2-3 disease or a Gleason score of 8-10, hormone therapy plus 3DCRT or IMRT is an excellent treatment choice. Studies of radical prostatectomy show the most reliable long-term results, and the studies of external-beam radiotherapy have used the best scientific methods to assess efficacy. On the basis of current data, we recommend specific treatment options.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center