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Med Vet Entomol. 2003 Mar;17(1):87-94.

Pyrethroid and DDT cross-resistance in Aedes aegypti is correlated with novel mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene.

Author information

1
Laboratoire de Lutte contre les Insectes Nuisibles, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpment, Montpellier, France.

Abstract

Samples of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected from 13 localities between 1995 and 1998. Two laboratory strains, Bora (French Polynesia) and AEAE, were both susceptible to DDT and permethrin; all other strains, except Larentuka (Indonesia) and Bouaké (Ivory Coast), contained individual fourth-instar larvae resistant to permethrin. Ten strains were subjected to a range of biochemical assays. Many strains had elevated carboxylesterase activity compared to the Bora strain; this was particularly high in the Indonesian strains Salatiga and Semarang, and in the Guyane strain (Cayenne). Monooxygenase levels were increased in the Salatiga and Paea (Polynesia) strains, and reduced in the two Thai strains (Mae Kaza, Mae Kud) and the Larentuka strain. Glutathione S-transferase activity was elevated in the Guyane strain. All other enzyme profiles were similar to the susceptible strain. The presence of both DDT and pyrethroid resistance in the Semarang, Belem (Brazil) and Long Hoa (Vietnam) strains suggested the presence of a knock-down resistant (kdr)-type resistance mechanism. Part of the S6 hydrophobic segment of domain II of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced from several insects from all 13 field strains. Four novel mutations were identified. Three strains contained identical amino acid substitutions at two positions, two strains shared a different substitution, and one strain was homozygous for a fourth alteration. The leucine to phenylalanine substitution that confers nerve insensitivity to pyrethroids in a range of other resistant insects was absent. Direct neurophysiological assays on individual larvae from three strains with these mutations demonstrated reduced nerve sensitivity to permethrin or lambda cyhalothrin inhibition compared to the susceptible strains.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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