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Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2003 Feb;12(1):3-15.

Ten principles of grammar facilitation for children with specific language impairments.

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Department of Hearing and Speech, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 3031 Miller, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66106-7605, USA.


Although they often have significant difficulties in other areas, most children with specific language impairment (SLI) have special difficulties with the understanding and use of grammar. Therefore, most of these children will require an intervention program that targets comprehension or production of grammatical form. Language interventionists are faced with the difficult task of developing comprehensive intervention programs that address the children's grammatical deficits while remaining sensitive to their other existing and predictable social, behavioral, and academic problems. The purpose of this article is to present and justify 10 principles that we regard as essential for planning adequate interventions for children with language-learning problems. These principles are relevant for all children with problems in the use of grammar, but they are especially appropriate for 3- to 8-year-old children with SLI. Although all of our examples are from English, the principles we have chosen are sufficiently broad to cut across many linguistic and cultural boundaries.

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