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Urol Nurs. 2003 Feb;23(1):54-61.

Incontinence in women: effect of expectancy to regain control and severity of symptoms on treatment outcomes.

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Aurora Health Care, Milwaukee, WI, USA.


Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem for women of all ages. Associated with poor self-reported health, UI may have a negative effect on women's lifestyle and quality of life. Because UI is not commonly discussed between women or between women and their care providers, the extent of its impact on their lives is not fully understood. This study provides insight into how a woman's perceived or subjective opinion of the severity of UI and her belief in the ability to regain control of UI influence the effectiveness of treatment.

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