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Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Jul;17(7):1216-29. Epub 2003 Apr 3.

The Formin family protein, formin homolog overexpressed in spleen, interacts with the insulin-responsive aminopeptidase and profilin IIa.

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Discovery Research Laboratories II, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4293, Japan.


Insulin stimulates translocation of glucose transporter isoform type 4 (GLUT4) and the insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP) from an intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane in muscle and fat cells. A role for the cytoskeleton in insulin action has been postulated, and the insulin signaling pathway has been well investigated; however, the molecular mechanism by which GLUT4/IRAP-containing vesicles move from an interior location to the cell surface in response to insulin is incompletely understood. Here, we have screened for IRAP-binding proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system and have found that the C-terminal domain of FHOS (formin homolog overexpressed in spleen) interacts with the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of IRAP. FHOS is a member of the Formin/Diaphanous family of proteins that is expressed most abundantly in skeletal muscle. In addition, there are two novel types of FHOS transcripts generated by alternative mRNA splicing. FHOS78 has a 78-bp insertion and it is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle where it may be the most abundant isoform in humans. The ubiquitously expressed FHOS24 has a 24-bp insertion encoding an in-frame stop codon that results in a truncated polypeptide. It is known that some formin family proteins interact with the actin-binding profilin proteins. Both FHOS and FHOS78 bound to profilin IIa via their formin homology 1 domains, but neither bound profilin I or IIb. Overexpression of FHOS and FHOS78 resulted in enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in L6 cells to similar levels. However, overexpression of FHOS24, lacking the IRAP-binding domain, did not affect insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that FHOS mediates an interaction between GLUT4/IRAP-containing vesicles and the cytoskeleton and may participate in exocytosis and/or retention of this membrane compartment.

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