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Assessment. 2003 Mar;10(1):13-28.

Development of a short form for the MMPI-2 based on scale elevation congruence.

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School of Psychology, Raleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ 07666, USA.


The length of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is often considered a barrier to its use, leading to the development of short forms. Two methods of abbreviating the revised MMPI have now been developed. One agrees poorly with the long form in terms of which scales are elevated. The second ensures perfect congruence in which scales are elevated but requires computer administration. This article describes the development of a short form representing a compromise approach. The short form was derived using 800 psychiatric inpatients and cross-validated with samples of 658 inpatients and 266 outpatients. It is briefer than the computerized short form but does not achieve perfect congruence with the full inventory. It is longer than earlier noncomputerized short forms but demonstrates greater scale elevation congruence with the full inventory and allows estimates of more scales. The short form offers a reasonable alternative when the full inventory is impractical.

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