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J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Apr;137(1-2):140-3.

Immunomodulatory effects of orally administered cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis.

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Department of Neurology, VU Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Cannabinoids can modulate the function of immune cells. We here present the first human in vivo study measuring immune function in 16 MS patients treated with oral cannabinoids. A modest increase of TNF-alpha in LPS-stimulated whole blood was found during cannabis plant-extract treatment (p=0.037), with no change in other cytokines. In the subgroup of patients with high adverse event scores, we found an increase in plasma IL-12p40 (p=0.002). The results suggest pro-inflammatory disease-modifying potential of cannabinoids in MS.

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