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Bone. 2003 Mar;32(3):297-310.

Polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor beta 1 gene and osteoporosis.

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  • 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus Amtssygehus, Aarhus C DK-8000, Denmark.


Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is the most abundant growth factor in human bone. It is produced by osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclast proliferation and activity and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts. Several polymorphisms have been described in the TGF-beta1 gene. Previously, we and others have found associations between some of these polymorphisms and bone mass. We therefore wanted to examine if these polymorphisms are also predictors of osteoporotic fractures. The polymorphisms G(-1639)-A, C(-1348)-T, C(-765)insC, T(29)-C, G(74)-C, 713-8delC, C(788)-T, and T(816-20)-C were examined using RFLP and sequencing in 296 osteoporotic patients with vertebral fractures and 330 normal individuals. Bone mineral density (BMD) was examined at the lumbar spine and at the femoral neck by DXA. Genotype distributions were in H-W equilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium was found between the polymorphisms. The T(816-20)-C genotypes were distributed differently among osteoporotic patients and normal controls. The TT genotype was less common in individuals with osteoporotic fractures (chi(2) = 6.02, P < 0.05). BMD was higher in individuals with the TT-genotype (T(816-20)-C) at the lumbar spine, 0.960 +/- 0.173 g/cm(2) compared with individuals with the TC or CC genotypes: 0.849 +/- 0.181 g/cm(2) and 0.876 +/- 0.179 g/cm(2), respectively (P < 0.001, ANOVA). Similar differences between genotypes were found at the different hip regions as well as at the total hip. Individuals with the TT-genotype (C(-1348)-T) had higher bone mass at the femoral neck: 0.743 +/- 0.134 g/cm(2) compared with 0.703 +/- 0.119 g/cm(2) in individuals with TC or CC genotypes (P < 0.05). Individuals with the CC-genotype (T(29)-C) had higher bone mass at the femoral neck, 0.735 +/- 0.128 g/cm(2) compared with 0.703 +/- 0.120 g/cm(2) in individuals with TC or TT genotypes (P < 0.05) and at the total hip: 0.852 +/- 0.166 g/cm(2) vs. 0.818 +/- 0.149 g/cm(2), respectively (P < 0.05). None of the other polymorphisms were distributed differently in patients and controls and did not affect BMD. In conclusion, The TT genotype of the T(816-20)-C polymorphism is less common in patients with osteoporotic fractures and is associated with higher bone mass both at the lumbar spine and at the hip. The C(-1348)-T and T(29)-C polymorphisms were distributed similarly in osteoporotic patients and normal controls, however, the rare genotypes were associated with higher bone mass at the hip.

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