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Physiol Rev. 2003 Apr;83(2):581-632.

Secretory granule exocytosis.

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The Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.


Regulated exocytosis of secretory granules or dense-core granules has been examined in many well-characterized cell types including neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, exocrine, and hemopoietic cells and also in other less well-studied cell types. Secretory granule exocytosis occurs through mechanisms with many aspects in common with synaptic vesicle exocytosis and most likely uses the same basic protein components. Despite the widespread expression and conservation of a core exocytotic machinery, many variations occur in the control of secretory granule exocytosis that are related to the specialized physiological role of particular cell types. In this review we describe the wide range of cell types in which regulated secretory granule exocytosis occurs and assess the evidence for the expression of the conserved fusion machinery in these cells. The signals that trigger and regulate exocytosis are reviewed. Aspects of the control of exocytosis that are specific for secretory granules compared with synaptic vesicles or for particular cell types are described and compared to define the range of accessory control mechanisms that exert their effects on the core exocytotic machinery.

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