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Multi-dimensional liquid phase based separations in proteomics.

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University of Michigan, Department of Pediatrics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0656, USA.


This review covers recent developments towards the implementation of multi-dimensional (MuD) liquid phase based systems for proteome investigations. Although two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) has been used as a standard approach in proteomics, its drawbacks including the limited dynamic range and molecular mass range, together with lack of on-line integration with biological mass spectrometery (Bio-MS) have limited its widespread use and applications in proteomics. In the meantime, various liquid-phase based multi-dimensional separation techniques have been explored. Especially, with the emergence of the combination of nanoflow capillary high-performance liquid chromatography (cHPLC) and Bio-MS, attention is again refocused on utilizing multi-dimensional liquid-phase based separation of proteins. Some remarkable applications of on-line analysis of intact proteins and on-column digested proteins, and the emergence of approaches such as multiple HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem MS and capillary array electrophoresis-matrix assisted laser desorption ionization MS, have stimulated thinking towards developing a automated multi-dimensional system (MuDSy) that integrates liquid phase based separation, digestion and identification of proteins in complex biological mixtures.

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