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Int J Urol. 2003 Apr;10(4):220-7.

Histopathological analysis of angiogenic factors in renal cell carcinoma.

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Department of Urology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi Kamichou, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0032, Japan.



The present study was carried out to clarify whether a histopathological analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) can help predict the outcome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We examined the expression of VEGF, TGF-beta1 and MMP-2 in a large series of RCC with a long follow-up, based on histopathological factors and survival.


Immunostaining for VEGF, TGF-beta1 and MMP-2 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 84 patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomy at our institution between 1985 to 2000. The microvessel density (MVD) of tumor tissue was measured after it immunohistochemically stained with CD105 (Endoglin) monoclonal antibody.


A significant association was observed in the expression of VEGF and TGF-beta1 regarding the stage (P < 0.01, P < 0.01), nuclear grade (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and MVD (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), respectively. However, no correlation was found among the results of MMP-2, nuclear grade and MVD. A multivariate analysis demonstrated both the nuclear grade and MVD to be independent prognostic factors.


Our results suggested that the expression of both VEGF and/or TGF-beta1 can be useful predictive prognostic factors RCC. In addition, a multivariate analysis demonstrated MVD to be an independent prognostic factor of RCC.

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