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Cancer. 2003 Apr 1;97(7):1711-20.

Fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, liposomal daunorubicin, and dexamethasone plus rituximab and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine plus rituximab and GM-CSF in patients with Richter syndrome or fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Author information

1
Department of Leukemia, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Therapy for patients with Richter syndrome (RS) or fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unsatisfactory. A Phase II study was conducted to evaluate an alternating combination cytotoxic regimen given with rituximab and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in these patients.

METHODS:

Fludarabine-refractory CLL was defined as failure to respond to most recent prior fludarabine-containing regimen. Patients received up to six cycles of fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, liposomal daunorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVXD) plus rituximab and GM-CSF alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine plus rituximab and GM-CSF. Response, toxicity, and survival data were compared with data from prior therapy with hyper-CVXD alone in this patient group.

RESULTS:

Forty-nine patients with RS (n = 30 patients) or refractory CLL (n = 19 patients) were treated on study. Nine patients (18%) achieved a complete remission, and 11 patients achieved a partial remission (22%), for an overall objective response (OR) rate of 41%. With a median follow-up of 7.5 months and a maximum follow-up of 15.2 months, the 12-month failure free survival (FFS) rate was 27%, and the overall survival (OS) rate was 39%. Nine patients (18%) died during the first cycle of therapy, and two patients (4%) died during the second cycle. There were no significant differences between the rates of OR, OS, and FFS in the current study and those obtained with hyper-CVXD alone on a prior study.

CONCLUSIONS:

The study regimen had activity and significant toxicity in patients with RS or fludarabine-refractory CLL. It was not clearly better compared with hyper-CVXD alone in this patient population.

PMID:
12655528
DOI:
10.1002/cncr.11238
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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