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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1182-5.

A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma.

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1
Department of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. KMARCUS@LROC.Harvard.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To determine the toxicity and maximum tolerated dose of etanidazole administered concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HRT) for children with brainstem glioma.

METHODS AND MATERIALS:

Eighteen patients with brainstem glioma were treated with etanidazole and HRT on a dose escalation protocol (Phase I trial) between 1990 and 1996. All patients had MRI confirmation of diffuse pontine glioma and signs/symptoms of cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, or long tract signs of <6 months' duration. Cervicomedullary tumors were excluded. Patients (median age: 8.5 years; 11 males, 7 females) received HRT to the tumor volume plus a 2-cm margin with parallel-opposed 6-15-MV photons. The total dose was 66 Gy in 44 fractions (1.5 Gy b.i.d., with at least 6 h between fractions) for the first 3 patients and 63 Gy in 42 fractions for the subsequent 15 patients. Etanidazole was administered as a rapid i.v. infusion 30 min before the morning fraction of HRT. Planned doses of etanidazole were 1.8 g/m(2) x 17 doses (30.6 g/m(2)) at Step 1 to a maximum of 2.4 g/m(2) x 21 doses (50.4 g/m(2)) at Step 8. Dose escalation was planned with 3 patients at each of the 8 levels.

RESULTS:

Three patients were treated at each dose level except Level 2, on which only 1 patient was treated. The highest dose level achieved was Level 7, which delivered a total etanidazole dose of 46.2 g/m(2). Two patients were treated at this level, and both patients experienced Grade 3 toxicity in the form of a diffuse cutaneous rash. Three patients received a lower dose of 42 g/m(2) (dose Level 6) without significant toxicity, and this represents the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). There were 23 cases of Grade 1 toxicity (10 vomiting, 5 peripheral neuropathy, 2 rash, 2 constipation, 1 weight loss, 3 others), 11 cases of Grade 2 toxicity (4 vomiting, 2 skin erythema, 2 constipation, 1 arthralgia, 1 urinary retention, 1 hematologic), and 4 Grade 3 toxicities (2 rash, 1 vomiting, 1 skin desquamation). Grade 2 or 3 peripheral neuropathy was not seen at any dose level. The median survival from the start of treatment was 8.5 months (range: 3-58 months).

CONCLUSION:

The MTD of etanidazole in children receiving HRT for brainstem glioma is 42 g/m(2), with cutaneous rash as the dose-limiting toxicity. This is in contrast to the adult experience, which demonstrates a 24% lower MTD of 34 g/m(2) limited by peripheral neuropathy.

PMID:
12654425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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