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Oncogene. 2003 Mar 20;22(11):1611-9.

Distinct nuclear body components, PML and SMRT, regulate the trans-acting function of HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein.

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Laboratory of Human Tumor Viruses, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.


Several viruses target cellular promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) to induce their disruption, marked morphological changes in these structures or the relocation to PML-NB components to the cytoplasm of infected cells. PML conversely interferes with viral replication. We demonstrate that PML acts as a coactivator for the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein without direct binding. Tax was identified within interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs)/RNA splicing bodies (SBs), not PML-NBs; Tax expression did not affect PML-NB formation. Moreover, PML and CBP/p300 cooperatively activated Tax-mediated HTLV-1-LTR-dependent gene expression. Interestingly, two PML mutants, PML-RAR and PMLDelta216-331, which fail to form PML-NBs, could also coactivate Tax-mediated trans-acting function but had no effect on retinoic acid receptor (RAR)- or p53-dependent gene expression. In contrast, SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors), a nuclear corepressor found within the matrix-associated deacetylase (MAD) nuclear body, relocalized into Tax-associated nuclear bodies upon coexpression with Tax. SMRT coactivated the trans-acting function of Tax through direct binding. Coexpression of SMRT and PML resulted in an additive activation of Tax trans-acting function. Thus, crosstalk between distinct nuclear bodies may control Tax function.

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