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Vaccine. 2003 Apr 2;21(15):1687-93.

Boosting immunity to influenza H5N1 with MF59-adjuvanted H5N3 A/Duck/Singapore/97 vaccine in a primed human population.

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  • 1Infectious Diseases Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, LE1 5WW, Leicester, UK.


In 1997, influenza A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) emerged as a potential human threat. In 1999, a randomised study comparing two doses of MF59-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) surface-antigen vaccine found non-adjuvanted vaccine was poorly immunogenic. Addition of MF59 significantly boosted antibody to H5N1 to levels associated with protection. At 16 months, we undertook a follow-up study to assess the effect of H5N3 revaccination. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) of antibody by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI), microneutralisation (MN) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) indicated that protective antibody titres did not exist at 16 months after two-dose priming. Twenty-one days after revaccination, there was significant boosting of antibody compared to GMTs achieved 21 days after two-dose priming in the original study (P<0.001). MF59 significantly increased GMTs of antibody when compared to non-adjuvanted vaccine (P<0.001).

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