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Diabetologia. 2003 Jan;46(1):89-96. Epub 2002 Dec 18.

Prediction of severe hypoglycaemia by angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and genotype in type 1 diabetes.

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Department of Internal Medicine F, Hillerød Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark.



We have previously shown a strong relationship between high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, presence of the deletion (D) allele of the ACEgene and recall of severe hypoglycaemic events in patients with Type 1 diabetes. This study was carried out to assess this relationship prospectively.


We followed 171 adult outpatients with Type 1 diabetes in a one-year observational study with the recording of severe hypoglycaemia. Participants were characterised by serum ACE activity and ACE genotype and not treated with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists.


There was a positive relationship between serum ACE activity and rate of severe hypoglycaemia with a 2.7 times higher rate in the fourth quartile of ACE activity compared to the first quartile (p=0.0007). A similar relationship was observed for the subset of episodes with coma (2.9 times higher rate in fourth quartile compared to first quartile; p=0.048). The impact of serum ACE activity was most pronounced in C-peptide negative subjects (4.2 times higher rate in fourth quartile compared to first quartile; p=0.003), and in this subgroup carriers of the D allele of the ACEgene had higher rates of severe hypoglycaemia compared to the group homozygous for the insertion (I) allele. In a multiple regression analysis high serum ACE activity and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia were identified as the only significant predictors of severe hypoglycemia.


High ACE activity and the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene predict a high rate of severe hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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