Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Jan;41(1):39-45.

Effects of calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate bicarbonate health supplements on the urinary risk factors for kidney stone formation.

Author information

Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.


We describe a model to illustrate different chemical interactions that can occur in urine following ingestion of individual and combined health supplements. Two types of interactions are defined: synergism and addition. The model was applied to eight healthy males who participated in a study to investigate the chemical interactions between calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate-bicarbonate health supplements on calcium oxalate urinary stone risk factors. Subjects ingested these components individually and in combination for 7 days. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected at baseline and during the final day of supplementation. These were analysed using standard laboratory techniques. Three different chemical interactions, all involving citrate, were identified: magnesium and citrate exerted a synergistic effect on lowering the relative superaturation (RS) of brushite; the same two components produced a synergistic effect on raising pH; finally, calcium and citrate exerted an additive effect on lowering the RS of uric acid. We propose that the novel approach described in this paper allows for the evaluation of individual, additive and synergistic interactions in the assessment of the efficacy of stone-risk reducing preparations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center