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Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Apr;15(2):209-16.

Apoptosis during lymphoid development.

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Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Immunology and Cancer Research Laboratory 469, Life Science Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA.


Recent investigations have provided important insights into how signaling through the antigen receptors determines whether a cell survives or dies. In T cells, Grb2 and MAP kinases play essential roles in differentiating between apoptotic and survival signals. The PTEN phosphatase and Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, regulate apoptosis in both T and B cells. In B cells, antigen receptor-mediated death can be rescued by co-stimulation, in which the roles of protein kinase C and BAFF, a TNF family member, have been recently elucidated. In a recently identified mechanism of regulating inflammation, receptors such as c-mer and glycoproteins such as MFG-E8 were found to participate in the clearance of apoptotic cells.

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