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Int J Parasitol. 2003 Feb;33(2):145-52.

Acclimation of entomopathogenic nematodes to novel temperatures: trehalose accumulation and the acquisition of thermotolerance.

Author information

1
Department of Entomology, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

Abstract

The effect of thermal acclimation on trehalose accumulation and the acquisition of thermotolerance was studied in three species of entomopathogenic nematodes adapted to either cold or warm temperatures. All three Steinernema species accumulated trehalose when acclimated at either 5 or 35 degrees C, but the amount of trehalose accumulation differed by species and temperature. The trehalose content of the cold adapted Steinernema feltiae increased by 350 and 182%, of intermediate Steinernema carpocapsae by 146 and 122% and of warm adapted Steinernema riobrave by 30 and 87% over the initial level (18.25, 27.24 and 23.97 microg trehalose/mg dry weight, respectively) during acclimation at 5 and 35 degrees C, respectively. Warm and cold acclimation enhanced heat (40 degrees C for 8h) and freezing (-20 degrees C for 4h) tolerance of S. carpocapsae and the enhanced tolerance was positively correlated with the increased trehalose levels. Warm and cold acclimation also enhanced heat but not freezing tolerance of S. feltiae and the enhanced heat tolerance was positively correlated with the increased trehalose levels. In contrast, warm and cold acclimation enhanced the freezing but not heat tolerance of S. riobrave, and increased freezing tolerance of only warm acclimated S. riobrave was positively correlated with the increased trehalose levels. The effect of acclimation on maintenance of original virulence by either heat or freeze stressed nematodes against the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae was temperature dependent and differed among species. During freezing stress, both cold and warm acclimated S. carpocapsae (84%) and during heat stress, only warm acclimated S. carpocapsae (95%) maintained significantly higher original virulence than the non-acclimated (36 and 47%, respectively) nematodes. Both cold and warm acclimated S. feltiae maintained significantly higher original virulence (69%) than the non-acclimated S. feltiae (0%) during heat but not freezing stress. In contrast, both warm and cold acclimated S. riobrave maintained significantly higher virulence (41%) than the non-acclimated (14%) nematodes during freezing, but not during heat stress. Our data indicate that trehalose accumulation is not only a cold associated phenomenon but is a general response of nematodes to thermal stress. However, the extent of enhanced thermal stress tolerance conferred by the accumulated trehalose differs with nematode species.

PMID:
12633652
DOI:
10.1016/s0020-7519(02)00257-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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