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Arch Microbiol. 2003 Apr;179(4):278-94. Epub 2003 Mar 11.

Genome-wide transcriptional changes during the lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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Department of Dairy and Food Science, Food Microbiology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 30 4, 1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.


The set of physiological and metabolic changes occurring immediately after inoculation and during the lag phase is thought to be of vital importance for optimal offset of fermentation. The transcriptional changes taking place during the lag phase after inoculation of a late-respiratory-phase yeast culture into fresh, minimal medium were investigated by use of Yeast GeneFilters. In response to the nutritional up-shift, 240 open reading frames were at least five-fold induced and 122 were at least five-fold repressed. These genes were hierarchically clustered according to their lag-phase expression patterns. The majority of the induced genes were most highly induced early in the lag phase, whereas strong repression generally occurred later. Clustering of the genes showed that many genes with similar roles had similar expression patterns. Repressed genes, however, did not cluster as tightly according to function as induced genes. Genes involved in RNA and protein synthesis and processing showed a peak in expression early in the lag phase, except most ribosomal protein genes, which were induced early and whose expression was sustained. Genes involved in chromatin/chromosome structure showed late induction. The correlation between function and expression pattern for these genes indicates regulation by similar mechanisms. Much of the transcriptional response observed appeared to be due to the presence of glucose in the new medium.

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