Send to

Choose Destination
Kidney Int. 2003 Apr;63(4):1417-25.

Urinary aquaporin-2 in healthy humans and patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic heart failure during baseline conditions and after acute water load.

Author information

Department of Medicine, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, Denmark.



Patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic heart failure (CHF) have a reduced capacity to excrete water. Studies in healthy humans have shown that an acute water load reduces the excretion of aquaporin-2 in urine (u-AQP-2). We wanted to test the hypothesis that an acute water load reduces u-AQP-2 less in patients with liver cirrhosis or CHF than in healthy humans.


Fourteen healthy subjects, 14 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 14 patients with CHF were given an oral water load of 20 mL/kg. Urine was collected every 30 minutes for 4 hours for analysis of u-AQP-2. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning and at the end of the study for analysis of arginine vasopressin (AVP). u-AQP-2 was determined by radioimmunoassay.


During the study period, urinary output was 22.8% higher than water intake in the healthy controls and increased 14-fold from baseline, but in patients with liver cirrhosis and CHF urinary output was 14% and 24% less than the intake, while urinary output increased 7- and 19-fold from baseline, respectively. u-AQP2 decreased significantly more in patients with CHF (39%) than in healthy controls (17%) but it was unchanged in those with liver cirrhosis. AVP decreased 46% in patients with CHF, but was unchanged in healthy controls and those with liver cirrhosis. A 24-hour urinary excretion of AQP-2 was significantly elevated in patients with CHF (median, 25.7 nmol/mol creatinine) compared to healthy controls (15.7 nmol/mol creatinine) and those with liver cirrhosis (17 nmol/mol creatinine).


The excretion of AQP-2 in urine is abnormal both in liver cirrhosis in which we find less suppression of u-AQP2 by an acute water load and in CHF in which we find a high baseline level and an exaggerated suppression of u-AQP2 by an acute water load.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center