Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Mar;73(3):339-43.

Alerting and tuning the immune response by extracellular nucleotides.

Author information

Immune Cell Interaction Unit, Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


The interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms during inflammatory and immune responses is critical for avoiding excessive tissue damage. Extracellular nucleotides (e.g., adenosine 5'-triphosphate) may represent constitutive signals that can alert the immune system of abnormal cell death. Relatively high doses of nucleotides induce rapid release of proinflammatory mediators and favor pathogen killing. However, recent findings on antigen presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, revealed a more complex role for these molecules. Chronic exposure to low-dose nucleotides can redirect cellular responses to prototypic activation stimuli, leading to suppressed inflammation and immune deviation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center