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J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Mar;73(3):339-43.

Alerting and tuning the immune response by extracellular nucleotides.

Author information

1
Immune Cell Interaction Unit, Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. alasala@niaid.nih.edu

Abstract

The interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms during inflammatory and immune responses is critical for avoiding excessive tissue damage. Extracellular nucleotides (e.g., adenosine 5'-triphosphate) may represent constitutive signals that can alert the immune system of abnormal cell death. Relatively high doses of nucleotides induce rapid release of proinflammatory mediators and favor pathogen killing. However, recent findings on antigen presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, revealed a more complex role for these molecules. Chronic exposure to low-dose nucleotides can redirect cellular responses to prototypic activation stimuli, leading to suppressed inflammation and immune deviation.

PMID:
12629147
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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