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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Mar 1;32(3):298-302.

Protease inhibitor use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in a large cohort of HIV-infected women.

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Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, New York 10457, USA.



To assess the association between protease inhibitor (PI) use and the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.


Prospective multicenter cohort study. The diagnosis of DM was based on self-report at semiannual interviews conducted from 1994 to 1998.


Six inner-city clinical sites in the United States (Brooklyn, NY; Bronx, NY; Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; San Francisco, CA; and Los Angeles, CA).


A total of 1785 nonpregnant women who had no history of prior DM. The women made up four groups: 1) PI users (n = 609, person-years [PY] at risk = 707); 2) reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-only users (n = 932, PY = 1486); 3) HIV-infected women reporting no antiretroviral therapy (ART) ever (n = 816, PY = 1480); and 4) HIV-uninfected women (n = 350, PY = 905).


Incidence of DM and median body mass index (BMI) from 1995 to 1998 were compared among the four groups.


Sixty-nine incident cases of DM occurred among 1785 women (1.5 cases per 100 PY; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). The incidence of DM among PI users was 2.8 cases per 100 PY (2.8%) versus 1.2% among both RTI users and women on no ART (95% CI: 1.6-4.1 [PI]; 0.7-1.8 [RTI and no ART]; P = 0.01 for comparison of the PI group with the RTI group) and 1.4% among HIV-uninfected women (95% CI: 0.7-2.2, P = 0.06 for comparison with PI group). Weight gain was not associated with either PI or RTI use. Multivariate models identified PI use (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.90 [95% CI: 1.50-5.60]; P = 0.002), age (HR = 1.75 per 10 years [95% CI: 1.31-2.34]; P = 0.0002) and BMI as independent risk factors for DM.


PI use was associated with a threefold increase in the risk of reporting incident DM. Routine screening for diabetes, particularly among older and heavier patients using PI therapy, is advisable.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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