Send to

Choose Destination
Brain Behav Immun. 2003 Feb;17 Suppl 1:S51-7.

Conditioned immunomodulation: research needs and directions.

Author information

Center for Psychoneuroimmunology Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY 14642, USA.


Considering the brief time that psychoneuroimmunology has existed as a bona fide field of research, a great deal of data has been collected in support of the proposition that homeostatic mechanisms are the product of an integrated system of defenses of which the immune system is a critical component. It is now clear that immune function is influenced by autonomic nervous systems activity and by the release of neuroendocrine substances from the pituitary. Conversely, cytokines and hormones released by an activated immune system influence neural and endocrine processes. Regulatory peptides and receptors, once confined to the brain, are expressed by both the nervous and immune systems enabling each system to monitor and modulate the activities of the other. It is hardly surprising, then, that immunologic reactivity can be influenced by stressful life experiences or by Pavlovian conditioning.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center