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Epilepsia. 2003 Mar;44(3):435-42.

EEG in children with early-onset benign occipital seizure susceptibility syndrome: Panayiotopoulos syndrome.

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Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Woman's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.



We analyzed sequential changes in the localization of EEG foci along with age to identify a specific EEG pattern, and the relation between the clinical manifestations and the EEG pattern in patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS).


The subjects were 76 children, who had been followed up >2 years with repeated EEG examinations at 6-month intervals. Analysis of EEG findings included the determination of localization of spike foci, as a function of age, by using cross-sectional data, and the identification of subgroups with homogeneous EEG patterns. Then we compared certain clinical features among these subgroups.


In the cross-sectional EEG study, the occipital EEG spike focus was most frequently seen between ages 2 and 5 years. Independent and synchronous frontopolar and occipital spikes (Fp-O spikes) and centroparietotemporal (CPT) EEG spike foci had increased incidences between ages 4 and 7 years, and between ages 6 and 10 years, respectively. We subclassified the 76 patients into the following five subgroups based on the evolutional changes in epileptic EEG foci, which frequently showed shifting, multiplications, and generalization: (a) persistent occipital focus group (O group), (b) Fp-O spikes group (Fp-O pattern group), (c) generalized EEG pattern group, (d) CPT foci group (CPT group), and (e) no epileptic EEG focus group. The Fp-O group showed the latest age at onset of epilepsy. The generalized EEG pattern group had the highest frequency of seizures as well as recurrences of status epilepticus (SE), as well as the longest active seizure period among the five groups.


These results indicated that the EEG foci in most of patients with PS are frequently shifting location, multiplying, and propagating diffusely with age, rather than persistently localizing in the occipital region. In addition, the EEG patterns showed a certain trend and roughly corresponded to certain clinical characteristics. However, the prognosis of the seizures appeared to be favorable regardless of the EEG pattern.

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