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Science. 2003 Feb 28;299(5611):1380-4.

A new species of yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution.

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Early Life Institute and Department of Geology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.


Yunnanozoans are a distinctive clade of Lower Cambrian metazoans. Although widely accepted as deuterostomes, their exact placement within this superphylum is controversial. Here we describe a new species of Haikouella (H. jianshanensis) from the Chengjiang Lagerst├Ątte (Yunnan, China) with exceptional preservation of a number of features. These include external gills, which suggest that the origin of the pharyngeal clefts was independent of the gills. The diagnostic branchial arches of chordates may, therefore, be composite structures. No evidence was found for the chordate-like structures that have been described in other yunnanozoans. We propose that yunnanozoans are stem-group deuterostomes, allied to the vetulicolians.

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