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Biophys J. 2003 Mar;84(3):2071-9.

Microrheology of human lung epithelial cells measured by atomic force microscopy.

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Unitat de Biofísica i Bioenginyeria, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona-IDIBAPS, Spain.


Lung epithelial cells are subjected to large cyclic forces from breathing. However, their response to dynamic stresses is poorly defined. We measured the complex shear modulus (G(*)(omega)) of human alveolar (A549) and bronchial (BEAS-2B) epithelial cells over three frequency decades (0.1-100 Hz) and at different loading forces (0.1-0.9 nN) with atomic force microscopy. G(*)(omega) was computed by correcting force-indentation oscillatory data for the tip-cell contact geometry and for the hydrodynamic viscous drag. Both cell types displayed similar viscoelastic properties. The storage modulus G'(omega) increased with frequency following a power law with exponent approximately 0.2. The loss modulus G"(omega) was approximately 2/3 lower and increased similarly to G'(omega) up to approximately 10 Hz, but exhibited a steeper rise at higher frequencies. The cells showed a weak force dependence of G'(omega) and G"(omega). G(*)(omega) conformed to the power-law model with a structural damping coefficient of approximately 0.3, indicating a coupling of elastic and dissipative processes within the cell. Power-law behavior implies a continuum distribution of stress relaxation time constants. This complex dynamics is consistent with the rheology of soft glassy materials close to a glass transition, thereby suggesting that structural disorder and metastability may be fundamental features of cell architecture.

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