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Clin Exp Immunol. 2003 Mar;131(3):477-83.

Monocyte-derived RANTES is intrinsically elevated in periodontal disease while MCP-1 levels are related to inflammation and are inversely correlated with IL-12 levels.

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Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The Netherlands.


Bacteria colonizing tooth surfaces are essential in the induction of an inflammatory response in the periodontal tissues, but do not cause periodontitis in everyone, implicating differences in the host immune response. These possible differences were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cell cultures (WBCC), which revealed a down regulation of monocyte derived interleukin-12 (IL-12p70) in untreated periodontitis patients and an up regulation after therapy. IL-12p70 is a crucial factor in the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. Since CC chemokines are able to influence the T cell differentiation via cytokine secretion in antigen-presenting cells, the production of CC chemokines in periodontitis was evaluated. Therefore WBCC were stimulated with LPS from Escherichia coli for 18 h and the levels of IL-12p70 and CC chemokines were measured in the supernatants by ELISA. Untreated periodontitis patients released 2 fold more RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) (P = 0.01) and lower levels of IL-12p70 in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). A trend towards higher levels of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (P = 0.07) was also seen in untreated periodontitis patients; while similar levels of monocyte derived chemokine (MDC) and macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 alpha and -1 beta (MIP-1 alpha and -1 beta) were found. After periodontal therapy no changes were seen with regard to MDC, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta and RANTES, whereas the MCP-1 levels decreased (P < 0.05) and the IL-12p70 levels strongly increased (P < 0.01). The data showed a consistent inverse correlation between the levels of MCP-1 and IL-12p70, and their proportional changes after therapy correlated with the clinical inflammatory response after therapy. This indicates that the disease state regulates the release of IL-12p70 and MCP-1 in E. coli LPS-stimulated WBCC. In contrast, the persistent augmented levels of RANTES after therapy are suggestive for an intrinsic behaviour.

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