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J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Mar;120(3):489-94.

Regulation of tissue factor in microvascular dermal endothelial cells.

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1
Department of Dermatology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, U.S.A.

Abstract

Inflammation is accompanied by activation of the coagulation cascade, manifested by thrombosis and fibrin generation. Whereas endothelial cells normally provide a nonthrombogenic surface, inflammatory mediators may induce the expression of tissue factor, rendering their surface thrombogenic. In order to define the mechanisms regulating the expression of tissue factor in the skin microvasculature, we examined tissue factor expression in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Quiescent human dermal microvascular endothelial cells did not constitutively express tissue factor protein, but were induced to express tissue factor by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Increased expression of tissue factor protein was accompanied by increases in steady-state mRNA levels. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatment resulted in increased expression of tissue factor heterogeneous nuclear RNA without changes in mRNA stability, suggesting that increased mRNA was mediated primarily via increased tissue factor gene transcription. In order to define the pathways regulating tissue factor induction, we examined the effects of MG-132, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB activation, PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK1 action, and SB203580, an inhibitor of activated p38 activity. MG132 only partially blocked tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced tissue factor protein expression, despite an almost complete inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced E-selectin expression. In contrast, SB203580, almost completely inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced tissue factor expression but inhibition of MEK1 by PD98059 had a minimal effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated tissue factor induction in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Both SB203580 and MG132 treatment inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated increases in tissue factor mRNA and tissue factor gene transcription as measured by expression of tissue factor heterogeneous nuclear RNA. These data support a transcriptional role for both nuclear factor-kappaB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not MEK1 in tissue factor gene expression in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.

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