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J Med Virol. 2003 Apr;69(4):568-78.

Incidence and characteristics of endemic Norwalk-like virus-associated gastroenteritis.

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Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Erratum in

  • J Med Virol. 2003 Jun;70(2):336.


Endemic gastroenteritis associated with the Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) is little understood. This study tested for NLV in gastroenteritis cases in 257 households in Melbourne, Australia, for the period September 1997 to February 1999 by a reverse transcription hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were studied by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NLV was detected in 73 (11.4%) of 638 faecal specimens tested. Twelve (1.9%) were NLV genogroup 1 (G1) and 61 (9.6%) NLV genogroup 2 (G2). Gastroenteritis symptoms associated with NLV G2/no other pathogens were significantly more severe than where no NLV was detected. NLV G1 and NLV G2 were detected in adults and children, males and females. NLV G2 incidence showed a marked seasonal periodicity with significant peaks in the Australian late spring/early summer periods. NLV G1 seasonality was significantly different from that of NLV G2. Seven major NLV clusters were identified by phylogenetic analysis.

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