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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Feb;84(2):214-20.

The association of early computed tomography scan findings and ambulation, self-care, and supervision needs at rehabilitation discharge and at 1 year after traumatic brain injury.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA 95128, USA. Jeffrey.Englander@hhs.co.santa-clara.ca.us

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To ascertain the association between early computed tomography (CT) scan findings and the need for assistance with ambulation, activities of daily living (ADLs), and supervision at rehabilitation discharge and at 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

DESIGN:

Prospective longitudinal design.

SETTING:

Seventeen Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) centers.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 1,839 adults with TBI admitted to TBIMS trauma centers with subsequent acute rehabilitation; 849 were followed to 1 year after injury.

INTERVENTIONS:

Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Accumulated CT scan pathology from the first week after injury; FIM instrument and Disability Rating Scale at rehabilitation discharge and 1 year after injury; and Supervision Rating Scale at 1 year.

RESULTS:

Chi-square analyses showed that individuals with a midline shift greater than 5mm (lateral compression) were more likely to require the assistance of another person at discharge from acute rehabilitation with ambulation (29% vs 17%-19%, P=.02), toileting (47% vs 33%-38%, P=.05), lower-body dressing (57% vs 39%-46%, P=.015), bladder continence (32% vs 19%-23%, P=.03), and overall supervision (53% vs 44%, P=.0006) than patients with a midline shift of lesser degree. At 1 year, 57% of patients with a midline shift greater than 5mm on acute CT scans were being supervised in the home versus 30% to 39% of those with a shift of lesser degree (P=.003); there were no significant differences in the percentages of those needing assistance for ambulation or ADLs. The association of subdural hematoma with ambulation, self-care, and supervision needs was related to the degree of midline shift but not to the presence of subdural hematoma. Individuals with subcortical contusions were more likely to require assistance at rehabilitation discharge for ambulation (32% vs 18%, P<.0001), lower-body dressing (61% vs 44%), toileting (52% vs 35%), bladder continence (34% vs 22%), and overall supervision (61% vs 44%) than those without subcortical contusions (P<.0001). At 1 year, individuals with acute subcortical contusions were more likely to need assistance with ambulation (15% vs 8%, P=.004) and stair climbing (15% vs 9%, P=.03). Those with bilateral frontal (54% vs 46%, P=.009) or bilateral temporal (58% vs 46%, P=.03) contusions were more likely to need assistance with overall supervision at rehabilitation discharge, compared with those with unilateral or no cortical contusions.

CONCLUSIONS:

The presence of either a midline shift greater than 5mm or a subcortical contusion on acute CT scans is associated with a greater need of assistance with ambulation, ADLs, and global supervision at rehabilitation discharge. Patients with bilateral cortical contusions require more global supervision at rehabilitation discharge but no more supervision for ambulation and ADLs. These findings may aid health care professionals and potential caregivers in planning for rehabilitation and supervision needs after rehabilitation discharge and, to a lesser extent, at 1 year after TBI.

PMID:
12601652
DOI:
10.1053/apmr.2003.50094
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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