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Am J Pathol. 2003 Mar;162(3):991-1000.

cDNA microarray analysis of macroregenerative and dysplastic nodules in end-stage hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis.

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Department of Pathology, Section of Nephrology, The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.


Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common malignancy causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study we use expression microarray technology to identify novel genes that consistently displayed altered expression levels in the earliest identifiable precursors to hepatocellular carcinoma, dysplastic and macroregenerative nodules. The gene expression profiles from nine patients with end-stage hepatitis C cirrhosis that contained a combined 11 dysplastic or macroregenerative nodules were compared to the patient's matched cirrhotic liver tissue. A total of 53 genes were consistently dysregulated in the patient liver specimens. Six of seven genes were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, or by immunohistochemical studies performed on an independent set of lesions. The novel genes, including caveolin-1, semaphorin E, and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, have putative roles in carcinogenesis but have not been reported in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Microarray expression analysis of dysplastic and macroregenerative liver nodules provide insight into the earliest changes in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

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