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Dev Genes Evol. 2003 Feb;213(1):44-9. Epub 2002 Nov 19.

Utilization of a particle gun DNA introduction system for the analysis of cis-regulatory elements controlling the spatial expression pattern of the arylsulfatase gene (HpArs) in sea urchin embryos.

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Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.


We applied a particle gun method to introduce DNA into fertilized sea urchin eggs for the analysis of cis-regulatory elements responsible for spatial gene expression during development. We introduced HpArs (sea urchin arylsulfatase gene) -GFP and HpArs-LacZfusion constructs into the fertilized eggs and obtained high expression levels of the fusion genes. Using this assay system, we demonstrated that a fragment of HpArs (-3,484 to +4,636) is sufficient for aboral ectoderm-specific expression, and that the region in the first intron from +406 to +1,993 contains the control elements responsible for the repression of the HpArs promoter activity in secondary mesenchyme cells.

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