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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Jan 21;35(1):1-10.

Intranasal immunization with a lipooligosaccharide-based conjugate vaccine from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae enhances bacterial clearance in mouse nasopharynx.

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National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, 5 Research Court, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.


Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of otitis media in children. We investigated whether intranasal immunization with a detoxified lipooligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT) conjugate vaccine would generate protective immunity against NTHi in a mouse model of nasopharyngeal clearance. The results demonstrated that intranasal immunization with dLOS-TT plus adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) significantly induced LOS-specific IgA antibodies in mouse external secretions, especially in nasal wash (90-fold), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (25-fold), saliva (13-fold) and fecal extract (three-fold). LOS-specific IgA antibody-forming cells were also found in mucosal and lymphoid tissues with their highest numbers in the nasal passage (528 per 10(6) cells). In addition, the intranasal immunization elicited a significant rise in LOS-specific IgG (32-fold) and IgA (13-fold) in serum. For the immunized mice which had been challenged through the nose with 10(7) live NTHi strain 9274 cells, the vaccine group showed a significant reduction (74-77%) of NTHi, compared to that of control groups with CT alone or dLOS plus CT (P<0.05). Negative correlations were found between bacterial counts and the levels of nasal wash IgA or IgG, saliva IgA and serum IgG. The clearance of five heterologous strains was investigated and revealed a significant clearance of strains 3198, 5657 and 7502 but not of strains 1479 and 2019. These data suggest that intranasal immunization with dLOS-TT vaccine elicits both mucosal and systemic immunity against NTHi and enhances bacterial clearance from nasopharynx in mice. Such a vaccine and vaccination regime may be applicable to humans with an appropriate formulation.

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