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Biochemistry. 2003 Feb 18;42(6):1529-36.

Inhibition of beta-lactamases by monocyclic acyl phosph(on)ates.

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Department of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459, USA.


The cyclic acyl phosph(on)ates, 1-hydroxy-5-phenyl-2,6-dioxaphosphorinone(3)-1-oxide, its 4-phenyl isomer, and the phosphonate (2-oxo) analogue of the latter inhibited typical class A (TEM-2) and class C (Enterobacter cloacae P99) beta-lactamases in a time-dependent fashion. No enzyme-catalyzed turnover was detected in any case. The interactions occurring were interpreted in terms of the reaction scheme E + I left arrow over right arrow EI left arrow over right arrow EI', where EI is a reversibly formed noncovalent complex, and EI' is a covalent complex. Reactions of the cyclic phosphates with the P99 beta-lactamase were effectively irreversible, while that of the 4-phenyl cyclic phosphate with the TEM beta-lactamase was slowly reversible. The 4-phenyl cyclic phosphate was generally the most effective inhibitor, both kinetically and thermodynamically, with second-order rate constants of inactivation of both enzymes around 10(4) s(-1) M(-1). This compound also bound noncovalently to both enzymes, with dissociation constants of 25 microM from the P99 enzyme and 100 microM from the TEM. It is unusual to find an inhibitor equally effective against the TEM and P99 enzymes; the beta-lactamase inhibitors currently employed in medical practice (e.g., clavulanic acid) are significantly more effective against class A enzymes. The results of lysinoalanine analysis after hydroxide treatment of the inhibited enzymes and of a (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of one such complex were interpreted as favoring a mechanism of inactivation by enzyme acylation rather than phosphylation. Molecular modeling of the enzyme complexes of the 4-phenyl phosphate revealed bound conformations where recyclization and thus reactivation of the enzyme would be difficult. The compounds studied were turned over slowly or not at all by acetylcholinesterase and phosphodiesterase I.

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