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J Urol. 2003 Mar;169(3):1114-6; discussion 1116.

The outcome of bladder neck closure in children with severe urinary incontinence.

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Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco Children's Hospital, USA.



We evaluated the outcome of children who underwent bladder neck closure for the management of severe urinary incontinence.


Bladder neck closure was performed in 12 patients with bladder exstrophy, 4 with myelomeningocele and 4 with urogenital sinus anomalies for severe urinary incontinence that persisted after multiple failed bladder outlet procedures. The effectiveness of bladder neck closure and the need for subsequent surgeries were ascertained.


Mean followup was 5.4 years (range 1 to 12). At 3 months after surgery 40% of the patients were completely dry, 20% had leakage via the stoma and 40% had a urethral fistula. After additional surgeries 85% of the patients were completely continent 2 years following bladder neck closure (15% declined further surgeries or had an ileal conduit). Of the 15 patients with followup longer than 3 years only 40% remained completely dry, and leakage via the stoma developed in 47% after being dry for 1 year. Repeat urodynamic studies did not show any adverse changes in bladder dynamics in the incontinent patients. Stomal stenosis occurred in 30% of the patients and bladder stones developed in 40%. None of the patients had hydronephrosis or bladder perforation. The early complication of fistula formation and the late development of leakage via the stoma appear to be related in part to compliance with intermittent catheterization.


Bladder neck closure is an effective method of achieving urinary continence in children in whom other bladder outlet surgery has failed. However, its success is dependent in part upon compliance with intermittent catheterization. Finally children who have undergone bladder neck closure are at an increased risk for stomal stenosis and bladder stones.

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